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Full text of "Announcement of courses in the Dental School : for the academic year ..."



July, 1901 



No. 1 



QUARTERLY BULLETIN 




OF 

Northwestern University 

DENTAL 
SCHOOL 

Cor. Franklin and Madison Sts. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



CIRCULAR OF INFORMATION 

Session of 1901 - 1902 
Begins Oct. 2, 1901. 



LAST DAY ON WHICH STUDENTS MAY ENTER THIS SESSION AND 

RECEIVE CREDIT FOR FULL TERM'S ATTENDANCE, 

OCTOBER 12, 1901, 




The Bulletin of Northwestern University Dental School is published 

quarterly by Northwestern University. Entered at the 

Postoffice in Chicago as second- class mail matter. 



ANNOUNCEMENTS. 



1 901 



October 2. 
October 1-15. 
November 28. 
December 20. 

1902. 
January 6. 

April 14-19. 
April 21-29. 
May 1. 
October 1. 



Examination of Credentials for Admission 
on Application. 

Opening Exercises at 7:30 P. M.Wednesday. 

Examination for Advanced Standing. 

Thanksgiving, 

First Semester ends. Christmas Vacation 
begins. 



Christmas Vacation closed. Second Sem- 
ester begins. 

Senior Examinations. 

Junior and Freshman Examination. 

Commencement. 

Session of 1901 - 1902 begins. 



Note. — Return Tickets for students going home for Christmas 
vacation will be given out only on December 21. 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, 



CORPORATION, 



OFFICERS. 

William Deering . . President. 

The Hon. Oliver Harvey Horton, LL.D. . ..First Vice-President. 

The Hon. H. H. C. Miller, A.M Second Vice-President. 

Frank Philip Crandon, A.M Secretary. 

George Peck Merrick, LL.B '. Assistant Secretary. 

Robert Dickinson Sheppard, D.D Agent and Treasurer. 



TRUSTEES. 

TERM EXPIRES IN ICjOI. 

Norman Waite Harris Chicago. 

Nathan Smith Davis, Jr., A.M., M.D Chicago. 

Harvey Bostwick Hurd, LL.D Evanston. 

John Richard Lindgren Evanston. 

Alexander Hamilton Revell Chicago. 

The Hon. H. H. C. Miller, A.M Evanston. 

Charles Busby Chicago. 

The Hon. Elbert Henry Ga-ry New York City. 

Milton Hollyday Wilson Evanston. 

TERM EXPIRES IN IQ02. 

Edmund Andrews, M.D., LL.D Chicago. 

Nathan Smith Davis, M.D., LL.D Chicago. 

Henry Sargent Towle, LL.B Chicago. 

Harlow Niles Higinbotham Chicago. 

John Balderston Kirk Evanston. 

Henry Wade Rogers, LL.D Evanston. 

Burns Durbin Caldwell New York City. 

Charles Bowen Congdon Evanston. 

James Henry Raymond, A.M Evanston. 

TERM EXPIRES IN I9O3. 

The Hon. Oliver Harvey Horton, LL.D Chicago. 

William Deering Evanston. 

Merritt Caldwell Bragdon, A.M., M.D Evanston. 

Mrs. Mary R. Shumway Evanston. 

William Alden Fuller Chicago. 

James Bartlettt Hobbs Chicago. 

— l — 



2 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

Frank Philip Crandon, A.M Evanston. 

The Hon. Lorin Cone Collins, A.M Chicago. 

The Hon. William Andrew Dyche, A.M Evanston. 

TERM EXPIRES IN I9O4. 

Robert Dickinson Sheppard, D.D Evanston. 

Josiah J. Parkhurst Evanston. 

Charles P. Wheeler Evanston. 

David McWilliams Dwight. 

Frank Orren Lowden Chicago. 

Nina Grey Lunt Evanston. 

Gustavus Franklin Swift Chicago. 

Henry Howard Gage Evanston. 

The Hon. Lyman Judson Gage Washington, D. C. 



ELECTED BY CONFERENCES. 

ROCK RIVER. 

Rev. William Anson Spencer, A.M., D.D Philadelphia. 

Rev. John Patrick Brushingham, D.D Chicago. 

DETROIT. 

Rev. Joseph Flintoft Berry, D.D Chicago. 

*Rev. Arthur Edwards, A.M., D.D Chicago. 

CENTRAL ILLINOIS. 

Rev. George R. Palmer, A.M., D.D Onarga. 

Rev. J. Wellington Frizzelle Rock Island. 

MICHIGAN. 

Rev. George Smith Hickey, A.M., D.D Detroit, Mich. 

Rev. Edward George Lewis, S.T.B., D.D Grand Rapids. 



GENERAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

William Deering. John Richard Lindgren. 

Oliver H. Horton, LL.D. Josiah J. Parkhurst. 

Frank Philip Crandon, A.M. Milton Hollyday Wilson. 
H. H. C. Miller, A.M. James B. Hobbs. 

Nathan S. Davis, Jr., A.M., M.D.William A. Dyche, A.M. 
Robert Dickinson Sheppard, D.D. Henry Howard Gage. 
Daniel Bonbright, LL.D. 



*Deceased. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 3 

Northwestern University Dental School is one of 
the great group of literary and professional schools consti- 
tuting Northwestern University, situated at Evanston and 
Chicago. 

The College of Liberal Arts is at Evanston. 

The professional schools are in Chicago. 

Northwestern University comprises the following de- 
gree-conferring departments, each having its distinct faculty 
of instruction, with Daniel Ronbright, LL.D., acting Presi- 
dent of the University and ex-ofhcio President of the fac- 
ulty of each department. 

COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS. 
Daniel Bonbright, LL.D., Dean. 
George Albert Coe, Ph.D., Secretary Evanston. 

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY MEDICAL SCHOOL. 

Frank Seward Johnson, A.M., M.D., Dean. 

Nathan Smith Davis, Jr., A.M., M.D., Secretary Chicago. 

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY LAW SCHOOL. 
Peter Stenger Grosscup, A.M., LL.D., Dean. 
Edward Avery Harriman, Secretary Chicago. 

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PHAR- 
MACY. 
Oscar Oldberg, Pharm.D., Dean. 
Albert Schneider, Ph.D., M.D., Secretary Chicago. 

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY DENTAL SCHOOL. 
Greene V. Black, M.D., D.D.S., Sc.D., LL.D., D:an. 
William Edward Harper, D.D.S., Secretary Chicago. 

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY WOMAN'S MEDICAL 

SCHOOL. 

Eliza H. Root, M D., Dean Chicago. 

John Ridlon, M.D., Secretary Chicago. 

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 
Peter Christian Lutkin, A.G.O., Dean Evanston. 

SCHOOLS OF THEOLOGY. 

GARRETT BIBLICAL INSTITUTE. 

Charles Joseph Little, D.D., LL.D., President Evanston. 

NORWEGIAN-DANISH DEPARTMENT. 

Nels E. Simonszn, A.M., D.D., Principal Evanston. 

SWEDISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

Albert Ericson, A.M., D.D., President Evanston. 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

DENTAL SCHOOL. 



FACULTY. 



Daniel Bonbright, LL.D., Acting President of the University. 

Greene Vardiman Black, M.D., D.D.S., Sc.D., LL.D., Dean, Pro- 
fessor of Operative Dentistry, Pathology and Bacteriology. 

Thomas Lewis Gilmer, M.D., D.D.S., Professor of Oral Surgery. 

John Sayre Marshall, M.D., Professor Emeritus of Oral Surgery. 

Elgin MaWhinney, D.D.S., Professor of Special Pathology, 
Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 

Edmund Noyes, D.D.S., Professor of Dental Jurisprudence and 
Ethics. 

William Edward Harper, D.D.S., Professor of Operative Technics, 
Assistant Professor of Operative Dentistry. Secretary of 
the Faculty. 

James Harrison Prothero, D.D.S., Professor of Prosthetic Tech- 
nics, Prosthetic Dentistry and Metallurgy. 

Frederick Bogue Noyes, B.A., D.D.S., Professor of Histology. 

Twing Brooks Wiggin, M.D., Professor of Physiology and Path- 
ology. 

Vernon Jai.:es Hall, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry. 

George A. Dorsey, Ph.D., Professor of Comparative Anatomy. 

Charles Lewis Mix, M.D., Professor of Anatomy. 

Miland A. Knapp, D.D.S., Professor of Orthodontia. 



D. Willard Craig, M. D., Lecturer on Anaesthesia. 
Fred William Gethro, Lecturer on Operative Technics. 



— 4 — 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



THE DEMONSTRATORS. 

As the demonstrating force does not receive appointment until 
September, those for 1901-1902 cannot be given in this announce- 
ment. Each year a number of the members of the old force is 
retained and new demonstrators are appointed, mostly from those 
of the graduating class who by especial merit received this dis- 
tinction. 

DEMONSTRATORS AND INSTRUCTORS OF 1900-1901. 

Ralph W. Parker, D.D.S. Albert Parker Grunn, D.D.S. 

Fred W. Parker, D.D.S. Percy B. D. Idler, D.D.S. 

Arthur C. La Touche, D.D.S. Nat. B. W. McCartney, D.D.S. 

Oscar H. Miller, D.D.S. McGuire Snyder, D.D.S. 

Winfred Ross Collie, D.D.S. Moses Eisenstaedt, D.D.S. 

Charles Shewey, D.D.S. John N. Sandblom, D.D.S. 

Robert Levi McIntosh, D.D.S. Oakley Moses Barker, D.D.S. 

William T. Humphrey, D.D.S. Walter James Petrie, D.D.S. 

Waldo P. Johnson, D.D.S. Herbert Milton Craig, D.D.S. 

Reuben C. Traynham, D.D.S. Benjamin Waldberg, D.D.S. 

James W. Birkland, D.D.S. Albert Dodge Persons, D.D.S. 

Geo. B. Macfarlane, D.D.S. Charles H. Converse, D.D.S. 

Eugene S. Willard, D.D.S. Fred William Gethro, D.D.S. 

Alice Steeves, D.D.S. 

QUIZ MASTERS. 

Eugene S. Willard, D.D.S., Operative Dentistry and Bacteriology. 

Fred W. Parker, D.D.S., Materia Medica. 

Ralph W. Parker, D.D.S., Special Pathology and Therapeutics. 

Robert L. McIntosh, D.D.S., Oral Surgery. 

Walter J. Petrie, D.D.S., Prosthetic Dentistry. 

Enos Eli Copple, D.D.S., Pathology. 

John S. Reece, D.D.S., Histology. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



Northwestern University Dental School was founded 
and is maintained by the University, for the purpose of pre- 
paring young men and women in the most thorough manner 
for the practice of dentistry, and for the promotion of dentai 
science and literature. No expense has been spared in its 
equipment or in the employment of an adequate faculty of 
skilled teachers, with a large force of demonstrators and 
assistants. 

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT. 

Northwestern University takes pleasure in announcing 
to the dental profession and to students of dentistry that it 
has secured for a period of years the services of Professor 
G. V. Black, who devotes his entire time to teaching in the 
various departments of the dental school, and to superin- 
tending the order of instruction and the methods of teaching 
in all of the departments. He will continue his work in 
bacteriology and special pathology as heretofore, and in 
addition thereto will teach operative dentistry in the lecture- 
hall, and will personally superintend the clinical instruction 
of both senior and junior classes in the operative clinic 
room. 

Professor Prothero assumes charge of the prosthetic de- 
partment of the school, giving his entire time to that work. 
He is provided with special assistants for each section of his 
department, who will give their entire time to the work, 
together with an able corps of demonstrators. 

In order that Professor Black may give more time to the 
general supervision of the instruction given in the school, 
Professor Harper will assume a portion of the work in oper- 
ative dentistry, and Professor MaWhinney will assume a 
portion of the work in special pathology. 

— G — 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



THE MANAGEMENT. 



For the management of the Dental School the University 
has the services of Dr. G. V. Black, who has the direction of 
and gives his entire time to the educational work of the 
school, and of Dr. W. E. Harper, Secretary and business 
manager, who has the direction of its financial affairs, and 
also gives a part of his time to teaching. Dr. Black gives 
his time and attention to the direction of the dental 
educational features of the school, a duty which his long 
experience in teaching and wide familiarity with dental liter- 
ature and educational matters render him especially fitted. 
It is becoming well known that if a dental school is to suc- 
ceed well, its business must be judiciously managed, to the 
end that the most possible may be made of its income for 
the benefit of its classes. It is equally true that the devising 
and management of the courses of instruction, the order and 
modes of the presentation of subjects to pupils, and the 
arrangement of teachers and students in classes, sub-classes, 
and sections for lectures, class-work, laboratory exercises, 
and clinical teaching require constant care and study of a 
high order to enable students to realize the best results 
from their efforts during their years of school work. 

In order that the realization of these ends may be attained 
in the highest possible degree, the University has secured this 
combination in the management of its school. 

SITUATION AND SURROUNDINGS. 

Northwestern University Dental School is situated on tne 
corner of Madison and Franklin streets, Chicago. Entrance 
by elevator from Franklin Street. It occupies the fifth, 
fourth and third floors. It is within the principal business 
center of the city and in close touch with all of the principal 
surface and elevated lines of general and suburban travel 
with the different portions of the city, of its suburbs and the 
country. Therefore, its students may reside conveniently 
in any part of the city or its suburbs. This gives them the 
widest possible range of choice of residence while attending 
the school without inconvenience in coming and going. It 



8 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

also gives the school the widest range of territory from 
which to draw the great clinic so necessary to a great dental 
school. The material supply for this clinic comes from all 
parts of the city of Chicago and its suburbs, and is depend- 
ent largely upon the personal influence of the students oi 
the school, each one of whom draws from personal friends 
and acquaintances made in and about their places of resi- 
dence, patients who make up the personal clinical practice of 
tne individual student under the supervision of the demon- 
strators in the school. In this the out-of-town student seems 
to be in no respect less favored than the student whose home 
is in the city. This gaining and holding a personal clinical 
practice under the supervision of the instructors in the clinic 
rooms has come to be one of the features of this school that 
has a telling effect upon the after-practice of its students ; 
for by this plan of work the student not only learns the 
theory of practice and the manipulations of practical opera- 
tions in dentistry, but he passes at once to the work of prac- 
tical experience in building a practice for himself and in 
gaining that skill in professional comity and personal man- 
ner between himself and his patients which is as necessary 
to him in after years in drawing together and maintaining 
a practice as his knowledge of dental diseases and his skill 
in their treatment. 

For these reasons the residence of pupils in groups in 
widely different portions of the city is favored. This also 
gives the advantages of a more homelike life while giving 
in the aggregate a far better conception of life in a great city 
and decidedly better opportunity to draw upon its advan- 
tages while shunning the disadvantages of large gatherings 
of students in a single locality. 

Chicago is a great city and gives many advantages to the 
student who learns early to avail himself of them. Lincoln 
Park on the north offers, besides its beautiful pleasure 
grounds, some grand botanical gardens and winter conserva- 
tories where all manner of plants may be enjoyed or studied. 
A fine zoological collection where a large variety of animal 
and bird life may be studied, and the museum of Natural 



DENTAL SCHOOL 9 

History, in which there is a very large collection of birds, 
animals, and fossil remains of extinct animal life. Jackson 
and Washington Parks on the south, besides their splendid 
pleasure grounds, also offer splendid botanical gardens and 
winter conservatories, while the Field Columbian Museum 
offers a rare collection of Natural History specimens espe- 
cially suited for the study of comparative dental anatomy, 
and of modern and ancient human skulls and the condition 
of the teeth in the various races and types of men in different 
ages. The admission to this museum is free to students on 
presentation of their matriculation tickets to this school. 

Many other parks afford favorite pleasure grounds. 

A Number of Libraries are accessible to students who 
have taste for study, or for looking up subjects of interest, 
scientific, literary, or in connection with special studies. 

Chicago Library is on Michigan Avenue and Washington 
Street, ten minutes' walk from the school. It is one of the 
finest libraries in the country. Students may receive books 
from this library when vouched for by responsible persons 
known to the officials. This library has also many branch 
offices in different parts of the city, from which books may 
be received on application. These will often be convenient 
to the boarding places of students. 

The Newberry Library is very large and, besides general 
works, has also a large medical and dental library. It is on 
North Clark Street and Walton Place, and may be reached 
in a fifteen minutes' walk, or by street cars. This is a ref- 
erence library, and books can be used only in its reading 
rooms. 

The Columbus Memorial Medical (and dental) Library 
and reading room is in the Columbus Memorial Building. 
It is a journal library, containing about all the medical and 
dental journal literature. Books and journals can be used 
only in its reading rooms. 

The John Crerar Library occupies one floor in the Mar- 
shall Field building, corner Wabash Avenue and Washing- 
ton Street. It is devoted mainly to the natural, the physical 
and the social sciences, with their applications. It is a very 



10 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

large and a most excellent collection of books. It is a ref- 
erence library, and its books are used only in its reading 
rooms. 

These libraries are accessible to our students, and they 
will find in them not only a very large collection of books, 
but also men in attendance who are able and willing to assist 
the student in finding anything that they contain upon any 
given subject. 

There are a large number of other libraries, both general 
and on special subjects, that are available to the student who 
may wish to make proper and legitimate use of them. 

EQUIPMENT. 

The Equipment of Northwestern University Dental 
School, already excellent for teaching dentistry in all of its 
branches, is being continuously and rapidly improved. 

The Main Office of the Secretary and Business Manager 
is on the fifth floor, and is divided from the great clinic room 
by a railing, and overlooks the clinic, and is always within 
easy reach of the individual student, the man who has busi- 
ness with the school, or the visitor. 

The Main Office for Dispensing Material to Students is 
directly across the room from the Secretary's office, and the 
space between these forms the reception room for patients 
and visitors. 

The Main Operative Clinic Hoom is eighty by one hun- 
dred feet and twenty feet from floor to ceiling, and accom- 
modates one hundred and forty operators comfortably at one 
time. It is furnished with the latest and best pattern of 
Columbia operating chairs. The light is by windows upon 
three sides, one great skylight in the center, two-thirds the 
length of the room, and two smaller skylights at either side. 
Also for dark days and early dusk of winter afternoons, 
ample electric light is provided. Around three sides of this 
room above the windows, a gallery has been placed which 
in no way obstructs the light, and adds beauty to the room. 
In this are placed separate lockers with combination locks for 
each student in which to keep his engine, operating case, hat, 
wraps and operating coat. 



12 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

The Crown and Bridge Clinic Room opens off from the 
main operative clinic room, and is furnished with twenty 
New Columbia operating chairs, in which the clinical fitting 
of crowns, bridges and plates for artificial teeth is done. 
The Senior Prosthetic Laboratory is conveniently situated 
across the hall from this room and is furnished with benches, 
vises, electric ovens for baking porcelain, lockers for stu- 
dents' prosthetic instruments, and other appurtenances neces- 
sary to practical prosthetic dentistry. 

The extracting room opening off from these rooms is 
conveniently situated, furnished with a Columbia operating 
chair, fountain spittoon, forceps, instrument cases and gas 
outfit and all the apparatus necessary for anesthesia, and is 
in constant charge of an assistant to the professor of oral 
surgery. 

The Oral Surgery Clinic Room is also on the same floor 
across the hall and is so arranged as to bring the largest 
possible number of students near enough to satisfactorily 
observe clinical operations. It accommodates one hundred 
and seventy pupils at one time. 

The Main Lecture Hall is on the same floor. It is fur- 
nished with tablet opera chairs of the best type and seats 
comfortably four hundred students. It is lighted with one 
great skylight in the dome, furnished with curtain for dark- 
ening the room for illustrative electric lantern work, has 
moving blackboards at the back of the speaker's area, and 
screen for lantern work, stationary blackboards on three 
sides, etc. Indeed, it is furnished with all of the modern 
appurtenances for teaching. 

The Anatomical Laboratory is within easy reach of this 
lecture room, so that illustrative dissections are readily 
brought before the class. In this laboratory students do 
their work in sections, and under the efficient management 
of Professor Mix it is made one of the most interesting 
rooms in the building to the student. 

Dropping now to the fourth floor one enters a long hall, 
the walls of which are filled from end to end with students' 
lockers. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 13 

The Freshman's Prosthetic Technic Room is entered at 
the south end of this hall. It is furnished with benches, 
drawers for instruments, and stools for two hundred and 
twenty-five students, an electric motor which runs a bank 
of grinding lathes, vulcanizing apparatus, a bank of wash 
bowls with running water, plaster tables, speaker's desk, an 
office for dispensing material to students, receiving boxes for 
accepted work of students, etc. In this room the freshmen 
are taught the first rudiments of prosthetic dentistry. 

The Operative Technic Room is entered at the north end 
of the hall. It is lighted on three sides by large windows, 
and is provided with ample electric lights for dark days and 
for early dusk of winter afternoons. It has recently been en- 
larged and is now furnished with seats for two hundred and 
twenty students, each provided with bench, vise, and drawer 
for instruments. In this room dental anatomy and the rudi- 
ments of operative dentistry are taught. 

The Private Office of the Dean opens off this hall near 
the operative technic room. 

The Chemical Laboratory opens on the east of the hall. 
It has benches and drawers with complete outfit of chemicals, 
water and gas at each bench for ninety pupils at one time. 
The room is furnished also with furnaces of the best pattern 
for metallurgic work, making of solders, alloys, refining and 
assaying operations, refining and cleaning of scrap gold and 
other metals, alloys for amalgams, etc. The room is occu- 
pied mostly by the junior class. Close by the door of the 
Chemical Laboratory, another door leads into a small room 
furnished with fine balances or scales for delicate quantita- 
tive determinations in chemical studies. 

The Jun_or Prosthetic Laboratory opens to the west from 
the hall. It is a large room, well lighted and furnished with 
benches, drawers and lockers for two hundred students at 
one time, and contains electric motor and bank of grinding 
lathes, vulcanizing outfit and electric porcelain apparatus, an 
office for the distribution of material and the reception of 
completed work, etc. It is used by the junior class. 



14 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

The Physical Laboratory and general utility room is on 
the east of this hall. It is a large room and serves as a meet- 
ing place for the faculty and demonstrators for instruction in 
the general work of the institution and direction in the teach- 
ing methods of the school. It is furnished with cases in 
which much of the physical apparatus and illustrative mate- 
rial of the school is stored, and tables for their use by sec- 
tions of students. Much class work is done here by different 
instructors. There are hundreds of large class charts and 
pictures, nearly a thousand lantern slides, boxed, numbered 
and catalogued, hundreds of microscopic slides, microscopes 
for special uses, physical apparatus for measuring the force 
with which the human teeth may be closed, for determining 
the force necessary in crushing different articles of food, for 
determining the strength of filling material, for determining 
shrinkage and expansion of amalgams, for determining the 
force used in packing gold and amalgam fillings, etc. In- 
deed all of the physical determinations required by dental 
students. New instruments are being added as rapidly as 
their value is developed. 

The Bacteriological Laboratory is connected with the 
histological laboratory and is furnished with apparatus for 
the preparation of culture media. Thermostats and culture 
ovens, apparatus for staining and mounting micro-organ- 
isms, apparatus for testing the value of antiseptics, benches 
for practical instructive work, microscopes, electric lanterns, 
etc. 

NEW EQUIPMENT. 

Much new equipment was added last year in entirely 
new space on the third floor, comprising a new lecture room, 
a new quiz room, a new postoffice and lunch room, a new 
study and reading room, a new library and a new museum. 

The Histological and Histo-Pathological Laboratory is 
removed to the third floor, and is one of the best for its pur- 
pose in the building. It is lighted by seven large windows, 
and in addition has electric lights for each bench for use on 
dark days. The benches are all of hardwood, nicely finished 



DENTAL SCHOOL 15 

and are furnished with lockers for instruments and appa- 
ratus. It is furnished with seventy microscopes and benches 
for seventy pupils at one time, though the sections are gen- 
erally made much smaller. It is also furnished with nu- 
merous photographic illustrations of the tissues to be studied, 
electric lantern and screen with arrangements for dark room 
illustrative work, and more than five hundred lantern slides, 
apparatus for section cutting, staining and mounting of sec- 
tions, aquaria and live boxes for the continuous growth of 
confervse, animalcules, etc., for the illustration of cell life 
and cell function. This room is in charge of Prof. F. B. 
Xoyes and is used mostly by the freshmen and junior classes 
in sections. 

The New Quiz Room is furnished with one hundred and 
ten new opera chairs, blackboard and screen for lantern illus- 
trative work, and other conveniences for teaching. 

The New Lecture Room is well lighted and is furnished 
with two hundred and twenty-five tablet opera chairs, with 
blackboards, screens, and connections for electric lantern il- 
lustrative work, professors' ante-room, etc. 

The New Reading Room will accommodate two hundred 
students at one time. It is well lighted on two sides and has 
chairs and tables where students may go at any time of the 
day for reading and for study and be assured of the most 
perfect quiet. No talking whatever is allowed. 

The New Library is in the same room, divided from the 
Reading Room only by the arrangement of the museum 
cases. It already contains about three hundred running 
feet of shelving filled with books upon dentistry and cor- 
related subjects and a well selected and rich library of ency- 
clopedic literature, aside from a room devoted to the storage 
of unbound journals. It contains practically all of the books 
on dental subjects available published in the English lan- 
guage and nearly complete files of the journals. Of these 
latter from two to twelve complete sets have been obtained. 
Of the current dental journals one dozen copies of each come 
to this library. All of this literature is available for students 
and to the profession. 



16 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

Old Books on Dentistry arc still much needed. Alumni 
and dentists having old books not especially valuable to 
them should send them to us, and they will be catalogued 
and placed on the shelves. 

The Museum of human and comparative dental anatomy, 
already very valuable to the student, is rapidly growing. It 
now contains skulls illustrating all of the principal variations 
of tooth forms of the animals, reptiles and fishes, and pre- 
pared skulls illustrating human dentition from birth to ma- 
turity. Skulls of different races and wild tribes of men, 
ancient and modern, are being gathered. Many specimens of 
irregular development of the human teeth, supernumerary 
teeth, teeth of anomalous forms and specimens illustrating 
the various phases of dental pathology, are already in the 
cases and more are being continually added. 

Both the Library and Museum are open to members of 
the dental profession for the purpose of reference or study, 
and it is the request of the institution that the profession 
assist in the growth of the collection by donations of speci- 
mens of any nature suitable to the purposes of the Museum. 
Hundreds of specimens of anomalous development of the 
teeth and of pathological conditions are annually lost, which, 
if sent to us, will be appropriately labeled, the donor's name 
attached, placed in the cases, and become permanent and 
useful additions. This museum is continuously open to the 
dental profession. 

THE NEW BUILDING. 

This year the University adds, at a cost of half a million 
dollars, a new building, which will become the permanent 
home of the Dental School, and also of the School of Phar- 
macy and the School of Law. This building is situated on 
the southeast corner of Dearborn and Lake streets, and is 
especially convenient to reach from all lines of travel, both 
suburban and general, being within the down-town loop of 
the elevated roads. It is also within easy walking distance 
of a good boarding-house region. It has a frontage of 180 
feet on Dearborn Street and a frontage of 160 feet on Lake 




THE NEW BUILDING, 
Corner of Dearborn and Lake Streets. 



17 



18 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERvSITY 

Street. It is six stories high and is substantially and ele- 
gantly built. The Dental Sehool will occupy the two upper 
floors, which will be reconstructed especially for its accom- 
modation and its permanent home. The floor space will be 
sufficient for the accommodation of seven hundred and fifty 
students comfortably, with lecture rooms, operating rooms 
and laboratories for its several departments. 

The different schools in this building will be entirely 
separate from each other, with separate elevator entrances, 
and as distinct from each other as if they were in different 
buildings. The building will also contain the City Offices of 
the University and a large Assembly Hall for University 
gatherings, commencements and meetings of various sorts. 

The University will obtain possession of this building on 
the first of next October, and the w r ork of refitting for the 
dental school will then be pushed to completion as rapidly as 
possible, and as soon as this is done the dental school will 
be moved from its present quarters into its permanent home. 
This building will be one of the most perfect in its situation, 
in its arrangements and accommodations that has yet been 
devised for teaching dentistry. 

COURSE OF STUDY. 

The regular session of 1901-1902 will begin on Wednes- 
day, October 2, 1901, and continue till the following May 
1, 1902. The regular work of the school year will begin 
immediately upon the organization of the respective classes. 
The courses of instruction are progressive and extend over a 
period of three years, the teaching in one year not being 
repeated in the next. The pupils are strictly graded into 
Freshmen, Junior, and Senior classes, each having its sepa- 
rate and distinct courses of study. This division of classes 
in dental schools has been the work of years. Formerly the 
several classes listened to the same lectures all in a body. 
The division into distinct courses of study is complete in 
Northwestern University Dental School. No professo: de- 
livers lectures to more than one class at one time. There- 
fore in each class throughout the whole period the teaching 



DENTAL vSCHOOL 19 

is directed solely to the particular class. In the operative 
and prosthetic clinic rooms the teaching by the corps of dem- 
onstrators is directed to the individual pupil and adapted 
to his individual needs. These are, therefore, occupied by 
the junior and senior classes in common. 

A Resume of the several courses of study which follow 
will give a good idea of the work of the school : 

General Anatomy is in charge of Professor Chas. L. 
Mix. Its study is begun in the freshman year and continued 
through the freshman and junior years. Under the able 
management of Professor Mix this is made one of the most 
interesting courses of study in the school. Anatomy is 
taught by recitations, quizzes, demonstrations, and lectures. 
The classes are subdivided into groups of twelve students. 
Each of these groups is under a competent quiz master, who 
conducts recitations on lessons previously assigned. For 
this work each quiz master is provided with dissected speci- 
mens by which to illustrate lessons assigned. In this way 
the class has the benefit to be derived from the study of the 
text book and dissected specimens before the subject is pre- 
sented by the professor, and is better prepared to understand 
and retain the subject matter. In the museum there are dis- 
sected specimens for the use of students. In the anatomical 
laboratory students are required to dissect the whole body 
(in parts during the two years) and are under competent 
demonstrators. 

Histology and the Histological Laboratory are in charge 
of Professor F. B. Noyes, who will give one lecture and two 
hours of laboratory study per week in both the freshman 
and junior years. In the laboratory work the class will be 
divided in sections. The freshman studies will begin 
with the vital manifestations and structure of the liv- 
ing cells as exhibited in the large, single cell animal and 
plant forms common in ponds and ditches, such as the amoe- 
ba, vorticellae, rotifers and infusoria. The single cell forms 
are followed by the study of the formation of cell masses, 
or tissues, using first the Algae forming threads and sheets 
of cells and proceeding to those that form tissues of similar 



20 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

cells. In these studies the various forms of the reproduc- 
tion or multiplication of cells will be studied. Then the 
various elemental tissues of the animal, the epithelium, con- 
nective tissue, muscular tissue, and the nerves, are taken up. 
This work is done in the first semester. In the second semes- 
ter the relations and arrangements of the elemental tissues 
in their combinations which form the organs of the body will 
be studied. The laboratory work will follow the order of 
the lectures, accompanied by regular text-book study. The 
lectures will be illustrated by a large number of photomicro- 
graphs thrown upon the screen with the electric lantern. 

The Junior Year is devoted mostly to the teeth and re- 
lated tissues. First, the bones and periosteum, then the 
dental tissues, the enamel, dentin, cementum, dental pulp 
and the peridental membranes. The enamel is studied with 
special reference to the arrangement of the enamel rods and 
their inclinations upon different parts of the crown, its lines 
of cleavage, its lines of strength and of weakness with rela- 
tion to the preparation of the enamel walls and margins of 
cavities. The nature and structure of dentin with its system 
of dentinal tubes and fibrils. The cementum, its structure, 
functions and relation to the peridental membranes, its for- 
mation, destruction and repair. The dental pulp with rela- 
tion to the formation of dentin and its structural elements 
with relation to pathological conditions. The structure and 
tissue of the peridental membrane in relation to its functions 
and its diseases. Sections of all of these tissues are pre- 
pared, mounted and studied in the laboratory and careful 
drawings made of them by each student, so that each may 
obtain that working knowledge of them so necessary in the 
practice of operative dentistry. The large collection of pho- 
tomicrographs of these tissues used in the laboratory are of 
great assistance to the student. The development of the 
teeth is followed from the formation of the dental ridge to 
the completion of the formation of the teeth. In this work 
demonstrations in modeling clay clears up many difficulties. 

Physiology will be under the management of Professor 
Wiggin, who has had much experience in teaching this sub- 



DENTAL SCHOOL 21 

ject to dental students. The course will include two lectures 
per week during the freshman year and one lecture per week 
during' the junior year. 

Operative Technics is under the management of Pro- 
fessor William E. Harper, who has had a long experience in 
this work. The subject is taught by lectures, illustrated by 
models, by demonstrations, and by exercises in manipulation 
by the students, under the personal direction of the professor 
and his assistants. The first two weeks are given mostly to 
the study of dental nomenclature, or the study of the names 
of things with which the student must become familiar in 
the course of his dental studies. Then descriptive human 
dental anatomy is taken up and the forms and surface mark- 
ings of each tooth studied. This part of the work is illus- 
trated by models enlarged about thirty times, enabling the 
professor to locate every detail of form and of surface mark- 
ings upon the teeth so that they may be accurately under- 
stood. This method of illustration greatly facilitates the 
progress of the student. 

After a lecture and a recitation upon a particular tooth 
the student selects several of that denomination from a large 
number of promiscuous teeth and files at least one longitu- 
dinal and two transverse sections for the study of the pulp 
chambers and root canals, together with their relations to 
the external surfaces of the tooth. This general plan is car- 
ried out w T ith each tooth of the human mouth. In order that 
tooth forms may be more perfectly impressed upon the mind 
during this study, a carving of a tooth of each class, as the 
incisors, cuspids, bicuspids and molars, is made by each stu- 
dent in bone or ivory representing the actual size and form 
of the tooth. In this work the roughing out is done with the 
file, but the cutting of all the detail is done with the excava- 
tors that the student will afterward use in practice, he being 
required to grasp and use the instruments as he will do in 
operations in the mouth. 

Instruments having now become in a degree familiar are 
taken up and their classification, the rules governing their 
construction, the range of useful forms, the names of each 



22 NORTHWKSTKRN UNIVERSITY 

under the descriptive formula plan, and their proper care, 
are made suhjects of careful study. It is particularly essen- 
tial that each student be familiar with the forms and uses 
of each instrument in his set. With this end in view he 
makes a model in brass of the working point (not the han- 
dles) of each to actual measurement and the special uses 
of each are carefully taught in connection with actual cavity 
preparation in extracted teeth, ivory and bone. In this work 
cavities are classified and models of each are made by each 
student. The requirements for the preparation of seats, 
the anchorage for fillings, and the forming and finishing of 
cavity margins, are carefully explained and strictly enforced. 
Special attention is given to the cleavage of the enamel, to its 
lines of strength, and to its lines of weakness, that these may 
be taken advantage of in practical work. In all of this the 
teaching of instrument grasps, finger rests for the perfect 
control of force, and the details of instrumentation, is con- 
tinuous, and the same plans are continued and used in all 
the operative departments afterward by professors and dem- 
onstrators. 

After the cavities have been passed upon by the professor 
or his assistants, the study of the working properties of ce- 
ment, amalgam, and gold, and the instrumentation in their 
use, is studied and demonstrated, and the cavities filled by 
the student. This course is very important in the knowl- 
edge acquired, in the training of the hand and eye, and is 
interesting to the student. 

Note. — The operations in the technic departments require a very 
large number of natural teeth, and a sufficient supply is sometimes 
difficult to get. It will therefore be to the interest of students if 
they will bring with them all the extracted teeth they can obtain. 

The Junior Course in Operative Dentistry will be given 
by Professor Harper. The didactic course will consist of 
two lectures per week during the term. In this work Pro- 
fessor Harper will make a regular advance upon the work 
done in operative technics in the Freshman year, giving 
more definite application of the principles to the practical 
operations in the mouth. At the same time the students will 
begin putting the teachings into practice in the infirmary. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 23 

At first a brief review in lecture and quiz of dental no- 
menclature, and especially cavity nomenclature and instru- 
ment nomenclature, will be given to be sure that all stu- 
dents know these sufficiently well to proceed and follow the 
lectures understandingly. Then the subject of cavity prep- 
aration will be given in detail step by step. Cavities will 
be classified and the plans of the formation of each class 
will be given, together with the particular instrument to be 
used in each part, and the methods of instrumentation to 
be followed in each individual class of cavities. 

Alter the lectures on Fridays Professor Harper will, 
during the first semester, take the class to the oper- 
ative technic room for special drill in the instrumenta- 
tion of cavity preparation, methods of cutting enamel, and 
especially the benefit to be derived by taking advantage of 
its cleavage and the directions in which it cuts easiest under 
the varying conditions in which it is presented in the mouth 
will be carefully demonstrated. The direction of the enamel 
rods on different portions of the crowns of the teeth, and 
the proper relation of the inclination of cavity walls to them 
will be studied. The forms of cavities in their relation to 
the stress of mastication, together with the forms of 
anchorage and the strength of fillings in the different 
classes of cases, will be presented. The final finish of mar- 
gins will be demonstrated and taught with the purpose of 
bringing out the best efforts of the student in cavity prep- 
aration. 

In the second semester the lectures will be continued 
and Professor Harper will demonstrate in the infirmary 
Friday afternoons, following out the methods taught in 
their application in the mouth. 

It is intended that this junior course in operative dentis- 
try shall be especially a drill in technical procedures in fill- 
ing teeth. 

The Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, in all of its 
branches, will be under the supervision of Professor 
Prothero, who gives this his whole time. He will deliver 
the lectures and manage in person and through his assist- 



24 NORTHWESTERN UNIVKRSITY 

ants the quiz work and special lines of clinical instruction. 
This arrangement places all of the processes of clinical in- 
struction under the control and direction of one professor, 
which prevents confusion in method and in the detail of tech- 
nical procedures which so often confuse the student and 
cause loss of time in gaining a working knowledge of them. 
Prosthetic Technics will occupy three hours per day, 
three days in the week, during the Freshman year, with one 
lecture per week. The lectures will accompany and cover 
the processes undertaken in the technic laboratory for each 
week, the student performing under competent demonstra- 
tors the operations and using the materials and appliances 
described in each lecture. The course will begin with tak- 
ing impressions of the mouth for partial and full cases, using 
all of the various materials and appliances employed for that 
purpose. The manipulation of plaster-of-paris, preparing im- 
pressions for securing models, model making, and separating 
from impressions, making trial plates, occluding and waxing 
teeth in position, investment of cases, or Masking, descrip- 
tion of vulcanizers and the processes of vulcanization, scrap- 
ing, carving and polishing vulcanized cases, and methods of 
repairing vulcanite dentures, all of which will be illustrated 
by the practical work performed by the student in the labora- 
tory. 

Crown and Bridge Work. — Preparation of the roots of 
extracted teeth for bands, fitting bands, carving cusps in 
plaster and other material, making dies, swaging cusps, 
soldering cusps to bands, and finishing. Making porcelain- 
faced crowns, conforming bands and constructing cope, 
grinding and backing facing and fitting to cope, investing, 
soldering and finishing, constructing various forms of por- 
celain and metal dummies, assembling crowns and dummies 
previously constructed and forming bridges, investing, 
soldering and finishing. 

Making dies and counter dies for metal work, including 
preparation of model and making sand impressions, con- 
forming metal plate to die, and swaging, trimming and fin- 
ishing swaged plate, occluding and waxing teeth in position, 
backing, investing and soldering; also attachment of teeth 



DENTAL SCHOOL 25 

with vulcanite, grinding, filing, scraping and finishing. 
This will include full and partial cases. 

Making lower dentures of cast metal, including special 
preparation of model, waxing up, investing, casting and 
finishing cases. 

It is the intention that this course shall render the 
student familiar with the various materials and processes 
used in prosthetic dentistry, train his hand in the perform- 
ance of the mechanical work, and fit him for the more com- 
plex technic work and the practical prosthetic cases to 
follow in the junior year. 

Metallurgy will also be presented by Professor Prothero 
in a short course of lectures during the freshman year, in 
which those metals used in dentistry will be the most 
prominently considered, as iron, steel, copper, zinc, tin, 
lead, aluminum, silver, gold and platinum. 

The Instruction in Prosthetic Dentistry in the Junior 
Year will include one lecture per week, advanced technics 
and practical cases for patients. It will begin with a review 
of taking impressions and the processes in vulcanite and 
will include the details of working celluloid. The construc- 
tion of gold plates, full and partial, and the working of 
aluminum in the making of cast plates and swaged plates, 
and the making of weighted dentures. Continuous gum 
work will also be introduced in this course. The principles 
of construction of all of the various crowns at present in 
use, the Logan, plain and banded, shell crowns and carving 
cusps and conforming them to the occlusion, porcelain 
faced crowns and porcelain crowns. Also a study of the 
stress applied by the muscles of mastication to the teeth, 
both singly and collectively, with its bearing upon crown 
and bridge construction, including the conditions under 
which bridges should or should not be used. 

The Senior Year in Prosthetic Dentistry will be devoted 
more especially to infirmary practice, which will include the 
practical construction of the various crowns, bridges and 
plates of vulcanite, gold, aluminum, celluloid, continuous 
gum, etc., for patients, under the direction of Professor 



20 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

Prothero and his demonstrators. An advanced lecture 
course will also be given, occupying one hour per week, for 
about one-half of the term, which will include new methods 
and appliances and reviews. 

The Infirmary Prosthetic Practice will have its special 
demonstrating force, which devotes its whole time to this 
work, and the demonstrators will be sufficient in number to 
give much time to individual students, directing them as to 
methods and demonstrating points of especial difficulty as 
they present themselves. 

General Pathology is presented by Professor Wiggin in 
one lecture per week during the junior year. This course, 
while essential to render the student intelligent as to 
general pathological conditions, forms the basis of his 
studies of the special pathology of the tissues of the teeth, 
their membranes and correlated tissues and organs of the 
mouth. 

Comparative Dental Anatomy will be taught by Pro- 
fessor George A. Dorsey, Curator at the Field Columbian 
Museum. Professor Dorsey has given much attention to 
this subject in its practical and scientific aspects, has 
traveled much and gathered specimens in many parts of the 
world. He has personal acquaintance with most of the 
animals in their native places and with various wild tribes 
of men now living, and has visited the burial places of many 
of the extinct races and personally gathered many of the 
specimens from which his conclusions have been drawn. 
The course will consist of one lecture per week, followed 
with two hours in the museum. In the museum the class 
will be divided into convenient sections for the examina- 
tion and study of specimens. In this course the student will 
study the animals, their food habits, the uses they make of 
their teeth, the forms of their teeth as related to food habits 
and as weapons of offense and defense. This will be fol- 
lowed by a study of the extinct species of animals of the 
several classes, the variations that have occurred in their 
tooth forms in the various geological ages, together with 
the development of the complex tooth forms from the 



DENTAL SCHOOL 27 

simple forms of the earlier animals, or the history of the 
origin and progress of the development of the tooth forms 
as they now exist in the animal world, and the uses made 
of this history by the geologist and students of natural 
history in the study of geological strata and of extinct 
species of animals. 

Chemistry. — The value to be derived from a good un- 
derstanding of the science of chemistry as associated with 
dentistry cannot be overestimated. Elementary Chemistry, 
which continues throughout the Freshman year, is taught 
entirely by lectures. These lectures are fully illustrated by 
experiments before the class. Particular attention is given 
to the metals and their ores, specimens of which are kept 
constantly before the class. In this course it is found most 
practicable to follow some standard text-book, the plan be- 
ing to assign work in advance of the lectures, so that when 
the student enters the lecture he has some preparation on 
the subject under discussion. Freshmen students are re- 
quired to attend two lectures- a week. 

Upon the Opening 1 of the Junior Course the subject of 
Qualitative Analysis is taken up in the chemical laboratory, 
including abundant practice upon unknown mixtures and 
in the analysis of alloys, cement, teeth, etc. 

Following this a thorough study of the various dental 
cements-is made, including the testing of cements for inju- 
rious quantities of arsenic. This course includes the prep- 
aration by each student of a practical oxyphosphate cement 
which is free from arsenic. 

The subject of alloys is next taken up, with particular 
attention to those used in dentistry. An alloy of an as- 
signed formula is made and studied by each student. The 
work, from the weighing out of the metals to amalgamation 
and packing of the prepared material in cavities in specially 
prepared steel blocks, is done entirely by the student. 
After the fillings are made, microscopical examinations and 
micrometrical measurements follow and the student makes 
a complete report of the results. Somewhat over 200 
alloys are made and examined, thus giving the student a 
thorough insight into the subject. 



28 NORTHWKSTURN UNIVERSITY 

A course in solder making is next given, including the 
preparation of tin, gold and silver solders. 

Refining metals is the next subject. Gold and silver 
scraps are refined and used in making solders, or alloyed 
and rolled into plate. 

In addition to the ordinary outfit the laboratory is pro- 
vided with a special large Hosking furnace and other forms 
of furnaces, rolling machines, anvils, balances, and many 
other forms of apparatus for this special course. 

Junior students are required to spend three hours per 
week in the laboratory throughout the year. 

Chemical Laboratory Deposit. — Before entering the 
Chemical Laboratory each student is required to make a 
deposit of $5.00 to cover chemicals used, breakage, ex- 
penses and special printed directions furnished each stu- 
dent. It has been found by experience that the above de- 
posit covers the average expenses of the students through- 
out the year, so little, if any, of this is returnable. If, 
however, the student exceeds the deposit, he will be ex- 
pected to pay the excess at the end of the course. 

Materia Medica will be studied in the Junior Year and 
will be presented by Professor MaWhinney in one lecture 
a week, and frequent quizzes during the course, and will 
include: 

A study of definitions, abbreviations, and terminology 
used, the nature of disease, the source of drugs in nature, 
preparations made from crude drugs, methods of admin- 
istering medicines; agencies that modify their action; the 
art of prescribing, general classification of drugs; their 
physical, chemical and poisonous properties, dosage and 
antidotes, and therapeutic application. 

The action of various important drugs will be illustrated 
upon lower animals, and a special study of antiseptics will 
be undertaken. Special attention will be given to those 
drugs that are of most value in the practice of dentistry. 

In addition, students are required to make certain 
points in treatment of cases in the infirmary. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 29 

Special Pathology and Therapeutics will be presented to 
the senior class by Professor MaWhinney in two lectures 
per week during the term. This will be in a degree divided 
between Professor MaWhinney and Professor Black, the 
latter presenting dental caries and other diseases of the 
hard tissues of the teeth and Professor .MaWhinney the 
remainder. 

This course will include practice of antiseptic dentistry 
and general considerations in the treatment of disease, hy- 
peremia of the dental pulp, its causation, symptoms and 
treatment, inflammation of the dental pulp, suppuration, in- 
farction and death of the organ, with detailed description 
of treatment in different conditions and stages of disease, 
modes of destroying and removing the dental pulp, and the 
treatment and filling of root canals. The treatment of teeth 
presented with pulps dead and decomposed, description 
and treatment of apical pericementitis and of the conditions 
leading to the formation of alveolar abscesses, with their 
symptomatology and the therapeutic management of this 
class of cases. The pathology, therapeutics and general 
management of alveolar abscess, both acute and chronic, 
the burrowing of pus among the muscles of the face and 
about the periosteum of the jaws, and kindred conditions. 

Diseases of the peridental membranes beginning at the 
gingival margin (so-called pyorrhea alveolaris) wall receive 
close attention. The different forms presented by this im- 
portant group of diseases will be described in the lectures 
and illustrated by practical cases in the infirmary, and the 
treatment and general management of cases presenting the 
various characters followed under the direct supervision of 
Professor MaWhinney and the demonstrators. The 
methods of bleaching discolored teeth will receive careful 
attention. 

The mitigation of pain in dental operations will receive 
especial attention, and the various means employed fully 
developed and explained, and such directions given as will 
enable the student to avoid methods and drugs that may be 
hurtful or dangerous to patients. 



30 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

The infirmary clinic presents abundant illustrations of 
the various pathological conditions of the teeth and as- 
sociate parts for the practical study of these conditions and 
their management, so that the observant student may be- 
come practically familiar with them. 

Professor MaWhinney will be one-half day in each week 
in the infirmary clinic in personal teaching, explaining 
personally to students the meaning of various combinations 
of symptoms, pointing out and explaining the underlying 
pathological conditions, and directing students in the ap- 
plicaton of remedies to special cases. 

Experimental trial of drugs upon animals, illustrating 
their toxic effects, begun in the junior year, will be con- 
tinued and extended in the senior year, especially those in 
use as local obtundants, or that exhibit poisonous proper- 
ties that are in any wise dangerous to patients. 

Operative Dentistry. — The senior course in operative 
dentistry will be given by Professor G. V. Black in connec- 
tion with the course in bacteriology. The didactic course 
will occupy two lectures per week for the greater part of 
the year. A recitation course will be conducted giving a 
brief review of the work done in the junior year, in the 
preparation of cavities and other manipulative procedures. 
The lecture course will be more essentially a study of dental 
caries, the conditions of susceptibility and immunity to 
caries, its modes of attack, the means of its prevention and 
the management of filling operations for the prevention of 
its recurrence; the conditions under which extension of 
cavities for the prevention of the recurrence of caries 
should or should not be undertaken, the use of temporary 
fillings, especially for children, and the conditions necessary 
for permanent operations for children; the reasons for 
special methods in different classes of cases, and the gen- 
eral adaptation of operative procedures as curative and pre- 
ventive measures, etc. It is intended that this shall be an 
advanced course in the general management of operative 
procedures, the foundation for which has been laid in the 
freshman and junior years. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 31 

The Operative Infirmary Clinic is under the direct 
supervision of Professor G. V. Black. The student begins 
this work with the beginning of his junior year and con- 
tinues it to the end of the senior year, the time given to it 
being much greater in the senior year. It is the intention 
that this infirmary practice be as much like an actual dental 
practice as it is possible to make it. The development of 
the ability to obtain and hold a practice, or that professional 
comity between an operator and his patients essential to 
personal success, is regarded as parallel in its importance 
to the future of the student with the development of ma- 
nipulative ability. In order that they may begin at once 
that practice by which this ability is developed, students 
are urged to bring their friends and acquaintances to the 
infirmary as their individual patients. Such patients will 
always be assigned as requested and become the patients of 
the individual student, and collectively will constitute his 
individual infirmary practice. 

This practice, however, is, and must be, under the direc- 
tion of the demonstrators in all of its details, from the pri- 
mary examination upon the entrance of the patient to the 
clinic room to its completion. Of the many patients who 
come to the clinic room without individual preference as to 
operator, assignments will be made to the students who 
may need them for a beginning of their clinical practice or 
who may not have obtained a sufficient number. 

The Demonstrating Force will be • assigned to sections 
of the clinic room, and by a system of rotation each student 
will successively come under the direction of each demon- 
strator. The number of demonstrators will be ample to 
give a large amount of personal attention to each individual 
student in his section, consulting with him, directing his 
operations in detail and demonstrating points that may be- 
new or difficult as they present themselves. This personal 
teaching is made a special feature of this school, and great 
attention is given by the management to the drill of the 
demonstrating force, in order that they may understand 
well their especial duties to the students and the methods of 



32 NORTIIWKSTKRN UNIVKRSITY 

instruction adopted and maintained in the school, and that 
their direction and actions may be in harmony throughout 
their clinical teaching. To insure this harmony of action 
and of method the demonstrating force is brought together 
once per week throughout the course, much of the time 
twice per week, for instructions and special drill in teaching 
methods and their especial duties. 

In this great clinic, embracing several hundred patients 
per day, students have the opportunity to see and to study 
a wonderful variety of cases. They are made up of every 
variety of pathological condition, from the simplest devia- 
tion from the normal to the most grave conditions. A 
great variety of cases of irregularity of the teeth, impacted 
teeth, suppression of particular teeth, retention of decidu- 
ous teeth, atrophy of the teeth and of deformities of the teeth 
and of the jaws can be seen and studied. A careful observer 
will be able to see more of the pathological conditions of 
the teeth, deformities of the teeth, irregularities of the posi- 
tion, etc., in this great clinic than he would observe in many 
years of ordinary private practice. A practice of two years 
in such a clinic does more to fit a young man for the duties 
of the private practice of dentistry than many years of 
ordinary office observation could do. 

The System of Credits for experience gained in clinical 
practice is such as to give each student a fair statement of 
what he has done. Instead of counting this by the number 
of cavities filled, great and small, as has been the custom, 
the credits are awarded in points. The basis of the point 
is a small pit cavity in the occlusal surface of a molar, the 
easiest cavity to fill. In case of other and more difficult 
cavities the credit is given in a number of points propor- 
tionate to the difficulties of the individual case. Therefore, 
no matter what the difficulties of the case, or the time re- 
quired, the credits for experience gained will be in due pro- 
portion to the effort required. Hence students undertake 
and do all classes of cases, simple or difficult, with equal 
zeal. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 33 

In clinical operative dentistry each student of the senior 
class will be required to present a written description in 
detail of the conditions of the patient and of teeth requir- 
ing operation, and of the operative procedures in the prep- 
aration and filling of four cavities, two gold and two 
amalgam, done under the immediate supervision of Pro- 
fessor Black, or of assistants whom he may appoint for that 
purpose. Recent experience has shown this exercise to be 
a very important one to the advancement of the student. 

Summer Clinics. — The clinic rooms will be open all the 
year for the benefit of students who may wish to have 
greater experience in clinical practice under competent 
supervision. The number of demonstrators during the 
summer will be ample for the class that may choose to 
remain with the school. The clinical material is abundant 
and a most excellent opportunity is afforded for clinical 
practice. 

Bacteriology will form an important part of the senior 
course given by Professor Black. It will be presented espe- 
cially in its relations to dental pathology and dental prac- 
tice. The student will be familiarized with the general 
principles of the subject, with the nature of these growths, 
the place they occupy in nature, their physiological pro- 
cesses, how and where they grow, how they live, what they 
do, and how they produce disease. The differences between 
disease-producing and non-disease-producing organisms 
will be pointed out. 

The micro-organisms of the human mouth will receive 
especial attention. They will be collected from patients in 
the infirmary and from members of the class in the lecture 
room, thus pointing out their natural habitat and the 
appearances produced by their natural growth. These will 
be cultivated in the various culture media, illustrating the 
growths as they appear to the naked eye in such ways as to 
illustrate the practical necessities of aseptic operating in 
dentistry, when and how dangers of infection arise, and 
how to avoid them. Species will be separated by plate cul- 
ture, and pure growths of varieties obtained directly from 



34 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

the mixed growths gathered from patients and students. 
The forms of growth as they appear to the naked eye on 
the various culture media will be studied in the lecture room 
and laboratory, and the microscopic characters of the or- 
ganisms, plans of staining, mounting, etc., will be studied 
by sections in the laboratory. 

Orthodontia will be taught both didactically and clin- 
ically. The subject will be taken up systematically, pro- 
ceeding from the normal occlusion to explain the abnormal 
arrangements and faulty occlusion of the teeth and of the 
irregular forms of the dental arch. These derangements of 
alignment of the teeth and the malforms of the dental arch 
will be so classified as materially to assist the student in 
an understanding of them, and the means and mechanical 
arrangements of fixtures to bring the several classes of 
irregularities into normal form, or to the best possible form 
in individual cases in which the normal cannot be success- 
fully reached. 

In the clinical work there are often forty to fifty cases 
under observation and treatment at the same time, giving 
great opportunities for the study of clinical methods and 
their results. This demonstrative work will be contem- 
poraneous with the lecture work, and all of the aids at pres- 
ent developed in methods of teaching this subject will be 
in use as occasion demands. The newer features of X-ray 
pictures for the determination of the positions of teeth that 
from any cause have failed to erupt at the normal time, and 
for determining the positions and forms of roots of teeth 
that are abnormally placed, are being used, demonstrating 
the value of this method of diagnosis in cases of special 
difficulty. 

Oral Surgery. — Professor Thomas L. Gilmer will have 
charge of the department of Oral Surgery. One lecture per 
week and a clinic of one and a half to two hours per week, 
with appropriate quiz work, will be given during the 
term. The course will embrace instruction in the general 
principles of surgery and their practical application to 
pathological conditions occurring about the mouth and 



DENTAL SCHOOL 35 

face, giving especial attention to diagnosis and recognition 
cf conditions requiring surgical interference. It will include 
the extraction of teeth with special attention to the diffi- 
culties encountered in cases of malposed and impacted 
teeth, the surgical treatment of facial defects and blem- 
ishes, the surgical treatment of alveolar abscess, the treat- 
ment of caries and necrosis of bones, fractures of the jaws, 
including the various devices and methods of fixing and 
retaining fractured and displaced bones in position. The 
treatment of diseases of the Antrum of Highmore, the diag- 
nosis and removal of tumors occurring about the mouth 
and face, the exsection of nerves in the surgical treatment 
of persistent neuralgias, etc. 

The whole clinical course will be an exemplification of 
aseptic and antiseptic surgery in its adaptation to, and uses 
in, the various phases of the surgical treatment of both 
accident and deliberate operative cases. 

Anaesthesia will be presented in detail in lectures, experi- 
mentally upon animals and in clinical illustration, embrac- 
ing all of the agents used for the mitigation of pain. 
Nitrous oxide will be exhibited daily in the extracting 
clinic, and ether and chloroform in the surgical clinic. 

It is especially intended that this course of instruction 
shall embrace those conditions which the dentist is likely to 
meet in his practice, not omitting careful attention to the 
minor surgical operations which the dentist should ordi- 
narily do for his patients, while giving an excellent basis of 
instruction to those who may aspire to a practice in oral 
surgery in the future. 

Professional Ethics and Dental Jurisprudence will be 
presented by Professor Edmund Noyes and will occupy one 
lecture per week during the first semester. It will consist 
of a brief statement of the more important principles of 
morals, followed by an exposition of the special duties and 
moral obligations of professional men in respect to their 
patients, toward their fellow practitioners, and toward the 
public, for the upholding of the honor and dignity of the 
profession. The more important differences between the 



36 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

professions and businesses or manufacturing pursuits will 
be explained, with reference to the ethical standards that 
are right and appropriate in each. The Professor and Fac- 
ulty earnestly desire that students understand and appre- 
ciate the high standard of moral quality and devotion to 
duty which ought to characterize all professional men. 

The lectures on Jurisprudence will, in the main, follow 
the text-book by Dr. Rehfuss. It will include qualifications 
and duties of expert witnesses, the importance of dental 
records, etc., as a means of identification, the limitations of 
dental practice, the qualifications required, and the liabili- 
ties incurred by those who administer anaesthetics, the pen- 
alties that may be suffered, and the defense to be made in 
case of real or supposed malpractice, and the liability in 
case of infection from instruments; the requirements of 
the Illinois law and the laws of other states respecting the 
practice of dentistry, the steps necessary to become legal 
practitioners, the duties and liabilities of dentists with refer- 
ence to the law, etc. This course of lectures will be fol- 
lowed by an examination at its completion. 

SUMMARY OF STUDIES. 

FIRST YEAR. 

Anatomy, two recitations or lectures per week during term. 

Anatomy, dissecting the median half of the human body. 

Physiology, to Nervous System, two lectures per week. 

Histology, one lecture per week. 

Histology, laboratory, two hours per week. 

Chemistry, lectures and class work, two hours per week. 

Operative Technics, three half days per week. 

Prosthetic Technics, three half days per week. 

Prosthetic Dentistry and Metallurgy, one lecture per week. 

Quiz and study hours. 

SECOND YEAR. 

Anatomy, two recitations or lectures per week during term. 

Anatomy, dissecting the median half of the human body. 

Comparative Dental Anatomy, one hour per week. 

Physiology, Nervous System, one lecture per week. 

General Materia Medica and Therapeutics, one lecture per week. 

Pathology, general, one lecture per week. 

Chemistry, laboratory, three hours per week. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 3/ 

Histology, general and dental, one lecture per week. 
Histology, laboratory, two hours per week. 
Prosthetic Dentistry, one lecture per week. 
Operative Dentistry, two lectures per week. 
Prosthetic Dentistry, laboratory and infirmary practice. 
Operative Dentistry, technics and infirmary practice. 
Quiz and study hours. 

THIRD YEAR. 

Dental Pathology, two lectures per week. 

Oral Surgery, one lecture per week. 

Oral Surgery Clinics, two hours per week. 

Orthodontia, one lecture per week. 

Orthodontia Clinics, three hours per week. 

Dental Jurisprudence and Ethics, about ten lectures. 

Prosthetic Dentistry, one lecture per week. 

Prosthetic Dentistry, laboratory and infirmary practice. 

Operative Dentistry and Bacteriology, two lectures per week. 

Operative Dentistry, Recitations, two hours per week. 

Operative Dentistry, infirmary practice. 

Quiz and study hours. 

TEXT BOOKS. 

FIRST YEAR. 

Anatomy — Morris, Eckley. 

Dental Anatomy — Black. 

Technical Procedures in Filling Teeth — Black. 

Physiology — Kirkes. 

Chemistry — Hall. 

Histo logy — Pier sol. 

Medical Dictionary — Duane, Gould, Thomas. 

SECOND YEAR. 

Anatomy — (Same as first year.) 

Technical Procedures in Filling Teeth — Black. 

Physiology — Kirkes. (Same as first year.) 

Materia Medica — Hare. 

Chemistry — Hall. 

Comparative Anatomy — Thompson. 

THIRD YEAR. 

Technical Procedures in Filling Teeth — Black. 

Oral Surgery — Marshall. 

Orthodontia — Angle, Guilford, second edition. 

Special Materia Medica — Hare. 

Dental Jurisprudence — Rehfuss. 



38 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

REFERENCE BOOKS. 

American System of Dentistry. 
Crown and Bridge Work — Evans. 

Diseases and Injuries of the Teeth — Smale and Colyer. 
Principles of Surgery — Senn. 

The American Text-Book of Prosthetic Dentistry — Essig. 
The American Text-Book of Operative Dentistry — Kirk. 
Micro-Organisms — Abbott. 

Micro-Organisms of the Human Mouth — Miller. 
Dental Pathology and Pharmacology — Burchard. 
Oral Surgery — Gar ret son. 

Grays Anatomy, Longs Chemistry, Tomes' Comparative Dental 
Anatomy. 

INSTRUMENTS. 

The instruments essential to the students in the several depart- 
ments of the school have been carefully studied and determined. 
Much care has been bestowed upon the selection of the instrument 
sets that the variety of forms may be sufficient for the student's 
needs without being excessive. Close study of this subject and long 
and careful observation of students and the progress they make in 
the attainment of manipulative skill show their progress to be so 
closely related to their instrument equipment that this school must 
demand that the instrument sets required be obtained by each stu- 
dent as a condition of his continuance in school work. 

It is found that a close adherence to the formula plan, in the 
study of cutting instruments particularly, is essential in teaching the 
important subject of cavity preparation; and this will be carried out 
critically in all departments of the school. This teaching is begun 
in the technic classes, and the same lines of instruction are followed 
progressively by teachers and demonstrators in all of the depart- 
ments to the end of the Senior year, the same instrument sets being 
used throughout the course of study. 

The instrument lists are required because they are essential to 
the student's progress, and students must provide them. Students 
should not bring with them, nor purchase, instruments of other pat- 
terns, for they cannot be received as equivalents of the required sets. 
They are the same as those required last year. No student is re- 
quired to make changes in his instrument sets during his three years' 
course. The instrument lists will be furnished on application. 

Written Quizzes and Examinations will be held by the 
various professors at intervals during the course, and espe- 
cially at, or near, the end of the first semester, or from the 
ioth to the 12th of December. A few of these latter, espe- 



INOTiCE 



The next regular session of Northwestern University 
Dental School will begin Wednesday, October 1, 1902, in 
the new building, purchased and equipped at a cost of 
three quarters of a million dollars, situated on the south= 
east corner of Dearborn and Lake Streets. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION. 

Students desiring to matriculate in this school must 
bring with them credentials signed by a state, county or 
city superintendent of schools or principal of high schools. 
These credentials must show the applicant to have pro= 
gressed in his studies to the completion of the second year 
of high school or its equivalent; these credentials will not 
be required of applicants who present diplomas from high 
schools or colleges. 

NOTE: — Students matriculating for the school session 
commencing October 1, 1902, are required to attend three 
regular courses of lectures of seven months each before 
graduation examinations. Those entering after that date 
will be required to take four regular courses of seven 
months each, commencing October 1, 1903. 



DENTAL SCHOOL 3S 

dally in those lecture courses which terminate with the 
first semester, will be final examinations, and a few others 
will be final upon the subjects passed over. But, for the 
most part, they will take the form of written quizzes as an 
educational exercise and for determining the progress 
being made by the classes as a whole, and by the individual 
student. Past experience has shown that the written quiz 
is of great value to the student as a training in the forma- 
tion of his ideas and in pointing out the particular lines of 
his strength or weakness and guiding him in his further 
studies. 

The monthly reports of attendance, and the standing 
of pupils in quizzes, recitations, laboratory work and in 
infirmary practice, both operative and prosthetic, will be 
considered in making up the rating upon final examina- 
tions. 

The final examinations will be held at the close of the 
term. Those of the senior class will begin on April 14th 
and be completed on the 19th. Those of the junior and 
freshman classes will begin April 21st and be completed 
on April 29th. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION. 

A radical change has been made by dental schools in the 
methods of examination for admission. Formerly these 
examinations were made by the officers of the Dental 
School, but the Faculties' Association, at the Omaha meet- 
ing in 1898, passed a rule requiring that these examinations 
be made by the legally constituted officers of instruction of 
the locality in which the applicant resides. 

Therefore students desiring to matriculate in this school 
must bring with them credentials signed by a County or 
State Superintendent of Schools, a City Superintendent of 
Schools, or a principal of a high school. 

These credentials must show the applicant to have pro- 
gressed in his studies to the completion of the first year of 
the high school or its equivalent in order to entitle him to 
matriculate in this school for the term beginning in Octo- 



40 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

ber, i (jo i. These credentials will not be required of appli- 
cants who present diplomas from high schools or colleges. 

ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING. 

Students who present certificates of having taken 
courses in other recognized schools which cover subjects 
required in this school will be accredited with such studies 
if satisfactory to the professors in the respective depart- 
ments. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR GRADUATION. 

The degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery is conferred on 
such students as complete the course of instruction, having 
attended three courses of lectures, the last of which must 
be in this school, and passed satisfactory examinations in all 
the subjects of study. To be admitted to the degree, the 
student must be twenty-one years of age, and possess a 
good moral character. He must have paid all fees in full. 

The monthly reports of the quizzes and the infirmary 
practice of the students will bear very materially upon their 
standing at all examinations. 

EXPENSES. 

Fees are good until May ist, 1902. The fees are paya- 
ble in advance. 

FIRST YEAR. 

Matriculation Fee $ 5.00 

General Ticket 100.00 

Histological Laboratory Ticket 5.00 

Dissecting Fee ( 1 part) 10.00 

SECOND YEAR. 

Matriculation Fee $ 5.00 

General Ticket 100.00 

Histological Laboratory Ticket 5.00 

Dissecting Fee (1 part) 10.00 

THIRD YEAR. 

Matriculation Fee $ 500 

General Ticket 100.00 

Final Examination Fee 20.00 



DENTAL SCHOOL 41 

Where it is so desired, the tuition fee may be divided 
into two parts, but in such cases an additional fee of $5.00 
will be charged. Where the fee is so divided, $65.00 must 
be paid on or before the 20th day of October, 1901, and 
$60.00 must be paid on or before the 20th day of January, 
1902. 

These conditions cannot be modified except upon the 
written consent of the proper officials of the University. 

A fee of five dollars must be deposited to cover chem- 
icals and breakage in Chemical Laboratory. 

All remittances, cheques, money orders, etc., should be 
made to the order of Wm. E. Harper, Secretary. 

Good board and rooms convenient to the school can be 
obtained at prices varying from three dollars and a half to 
five dollars a week, according to the accommodations; 
also, vacant rooms, without board, furnished or unfur- 
nished, can be obtained at from six dollars to ten dollars 
per month. G. V. Black, Dean. 

It is desirable that students should matriculate early, inasmuch 
as the order of assignment of seats is based upon the order of time 
in which they matriculate. 

For further information and other literature relating tc 
the Dental School, address, 

Dr. W. E. Harper, Secretary, 

Corner Madison and Franklin Streets, 

Chicago, Illinois. 

We have ready for the press our Annual Souvenir of half- 
tones, illustrating our school and equipment complete, which 
wilk be sent postpaid free upon application. 



THE ACADEMY OF NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY. 

To students pursuing studies preparatory to the Dental 
School, the Medical School or the School of Pharmacy, this 
Academy, located at Evanston, twelve miles from Chicago, 
offers peculiar advantages for special instruction. 
For special circular address, 

Rev. Herbert F. Fisk, Principal, 

Evanston, Ills. 



42 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

NOTICE. 

The library, Museum and Reading Room of North- 
western University Dental School is maintained especially 
for the benefit of its students, but incidentally for the whole 
dental profession. It is the intention that they shall be 
open to any dentist who may wish to look up any point, 
read any article, find any literature not contained in his pri- 
vate library, or to inspect any specimens in the Museum. 
Indeed, any member of the profession in good standing 
may have the use of this Library (under the ordinary library 
rules) by simply asking for an admission card. 

A Catalogue of the Library and Museum is now beinp- 
prepared for publication and will be issued soon, and may 
be had by any member of the profession upon application. 

To further the interests of this Library and Museum 
and render it more valuable to our students and the 
general profession, we ask donations of old books and 
magazines of every kind pertaining to dental subjects; 
(the older these are the more valuable to the Library) in 
order that we may render it more complete. There are 
many old books out of print, and which cannot be pur- 
chased, in the hands of dentists who do not especially care 
for them, that would become very valuable to this Library. 

Specimens of Abnormal Teeth of every kind are wanted, 
every one of which will contribute to the completeness of 
this feature of the Museum. Many of these are lost every 
year, which, if sent to us, will be mounted, placed in the 
cases, properly labeled and classified, and become perma- 
nent additions of interest. 

It is the intention that this Library and Museum be 
continually growing, both by purchase and by contribu- 
tions, until it shall become the most complete store of 
recorded knowledge of dental subjects in the country, and 
that the dental profession of the great Northwest shall have 
in it a common interest. 

All books and specimens donated to the Library or 
Museum will bear the donor's name on the label. 




43 



44 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL 



SENIOR CLASS. 



Ackerman, Charles, 77/. 
Adkins, Robert Alfred, ///. 
Akers, John Rankin, la. 
Anderson, Morley Walton, Mich. 
Appel, Jr., Peter, Colo. 
Atterberry, James Graham, Neb. 
Austin, John Franklin, Mich. 
Baasen, John Baptiste, Minn. 
Baird, Guy B., Neb. 
Baldwin, Arthur, ///. 
Baldwin, James Otho, 77/. 
Beadles, Robert Oscar, 77/. 
Beebe, William, Minn. 
Behm, Louis John, Mich. 
Benson, Joseph Lambert, la. 
Bevan, James Ambrose, 111. 
Bishopp, John Alfred, 111. 
Blair, William Frederick, Ont. 
Bohman, Otto Ferdinand, III. 
Bowen, David Harley, III. 
Bradshaw, Duane Franklin, la. 
Brock, Harry Martin, III. 
Brown, Ferdinand V. Garretson, 

S.D. 
Burhans, Percy Alexander, ///. 
Burkhart, Charles Hickey, la. 
Butler, Josephine K., III. 
ButturfT, Rolla Walter, ///. 
Cadwell, Clyde, ///. 
Carr, Samuel Lester, la. 
Chapman, Wesley Harrison, Wis. 
Clark, Thomas, Mont. 
Clevenger, John William, 5". D. 
Coffin, Algie Bruce, Neb. 
Cogley, Peter B., Mich. 
Coleman, Thomas, Mich. 
Collins, George Merrill, Fla. 
Conley, Winifred, Wis. 
Copple, Enos Eli, Neb. 
Corbitt, George Burris, Ont. 
Couvrette, George Joseph, Minn. 
Cummins, Frank Lawrence, Neb. 



Daly, Thomas Hogan, 111. 
Davis, Robert Kepler, la. 
Day, Ernest Walter, Minn 
Deitch, Frank, Mich. 
Doherty, Katharyne Alice, Wis. 
Donahue, Michael Albert, III. 
Demling, Edward Arthur, III. 
Emery, Newton Wesley, 5\ D. 
Ercanbrack, William Claude, ///. 
Erret, George Edwin, la. 
Fagg, Dow Marcus, Wis. 
Falloon, William Henry, Quebec. 
Fawcett, Arthur Clayton, Minn. 
Fleming, George K., Colo. 
Frank, William Joseph, Wis. 
Fritz, Thomas J., Mich. 
Gansel, Alvin Robert, Wis. 
Garrett, Frank Miles, ///. 
Gilbert, Orlando C, Cal. 
Gilmore, John Michael, Ont. 
Glass, Alfred Wilson, III. 
Gordon, Howard Edward, Ind. 
Gottfried, Charles Fredrick, Jr.. 

Mo. 
Gray, William Wallace, S. D. 
Griffith, R. Allen, III. 
Hacker, Albert Charles, Wis. 
Hadfield, Harry Cook, III. 
Hansen, Ca. Theodore, Minn. 
Hawkes, Arthur John, III. 
Heisey, David Judson, Ii. 
Henline, Buell, ///. 
Hickman, Herbert Eugene, Ind. 
Hines, Frank Benjamin, III. 
Hoffer, James Jacob, Wash. 
Hopwood, Olive Camille, Neb. 
Home, John Walter, Scotland. 
Hotch, Louis Grant, ///. 
Howat, Aleck Densmore, III. 
Hughes, David John, III. 
Hull, Elmore Thelitis, Wis. 
Ireland, Ora Dell, Ore. 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



45 



Isenberg, Hays Michael, la. 
Jarrett, Oro Johnson, Wis. 
Jensen, James, Neb. 
Johnson, James Philip, ///. 
Jones, Carl Lewis, Wis. 
t Jones, Harry, Australia. 
Jordan, William Henry, III. 
Kempter, Anton Raymond, Wis. 
Kennedy, Arthur Inglesby, Can. 
Kennedy, James Maddigan, Out. 
King, William Jasen, Cal. 
Kingsbury, Archibald Morgan, 

Minn. 
Knapp, George Guy, Colo. 
Koch, George Robert Ferdinand, 

Minn. 
Kramer, Charles Simon, Neb. 
Kremers, Walter Gerhard, Wis. 
Kruchevsky, Abe Samuel, 77/. 
Krueger, George Eugene. III. 
Lacy, Charles Benjamin, la. 
Laidlaw, John S., Out. 
Landon, Vernon Orlando, hid. 
Latcham, Harry Earl, la. 
Light, Frank D., III. 
Linderoth, Nils Herman, III. 
Lovitt, Charles Oscar, III. 
Lunak, Joseph Francis, Wis. 
t McAllister, Renaldo Eugene, 

McCarty, William H., III. 
McCormack, Arthur J., la. 
McCoy, Thomas Roger, la. 
McCrum, Thomas Benton, hid. 
t McCulloch, Thomas H., Idaho. 
McGowan, John Stewart, Out. 
McMaster, William David, la. 
McMennamy, Francis Earl, III. 
McQuarrie, Kenneth, Out. 
Macdonald, John Rae, III. 
Mack, George, Mich. 
Mahle, Arthur Augustus, III. 
Mathews, Lynn Duaine, la. 
Mathieu, Wesley John, 77/. 
Mathisen, Philip Leopold, Minn. 

t Did not complete course. 

* Special student. 



t Means, Jay, III. 
Meeks, Daniel Homer, III. 
Meves, Otto Charles, la. 
Meyer, Walter Fred, la. 
t Meyerhoff, Charles Leslie, la. 
Miller, Charles S., ///. 
Miller, Frederick, Minn. 
Miller, Gus, Jr., Wis. 
Milligan, Edward Luke, Man. 
Moore, Arthur Timothy, 77/. 
Moore, Edward Clements, III. 
* Mueller, Frida. Germany. 
Nelson, Lewis J., Wis. 
Nelson, Melvin Ray, III. 
Newton, Herman Christian, Wis. 
Nielsen, John Peter, III. 
Nisbet, Marshall D., Neb. 
Northwood, Reginald Charles, 

Ont. 
Nunn, Webster Hamblin, Neb. 
Orr, Clark, III. 
Oyster, Harry W., ///. 
Page, Myrtle Jane, Wis. 
Pellett, Frederick Nelson, ///. 
Pershing, Royal Strong, ///. 
Petry, John, hid. 
Phillips, Herbert, ///. 
Pottle, Curtis Brackett, ///. 
Puckett, Harry Clayton, ///. 
Purcell, William Michael, III. 
Read, Ervin Clifton, la. 
Reece, John S., ///. 
Reid, William Hutchinson, ///. 
Render, Alonzo Clarence, Okla. 
Richards, George Theobald, Wis. 
Rohwedder, Herman Harry, ///. 
Rossteuscher, Charles Ferdinand. 

S. D. 
Ruckman, Robert Jasper, Ore. 
Schneider, Adolph Emil, Neb. 
Schneider, Leonard Julius, Neb. 
Schoch, Andrew Clarence, Ore. 
Schulze, Herman Julius, Minn. 
Sears, Harry Elmer, III. 
Sexmith, Lyman, Wis. 



40 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



Shanks, Robert Edward, Wash. 
Shay, William, 111. 
Siebecker, William David, Wis. 
Sinks, Omer Francis, I nd. 
Skogsborg, Gunnar Herman, 

S uueden 
Smith, Charles William, ///. 
Smith, Ernest Ray, Wis. 
Smock, Grant Hibbard, Pa. 
Spalding, John Grant, Pa. 
Stevenson, Robert Alexander, 

Minn. 
* Stier, Carl, Germany. 
Stoffel, Earl Noble, la. 
Stokes, Hiram Chandler, 77/. 
Strauss, Milton William, hid. 
Stroeter, George Williams, Mo. 
Sweney, James Thomas, la. 
Taylor, Lemmie Em, Tcnn. 
Thomas, William Albert, Wis. 
Thompson, Joseph Ferdinand, 

Wis. 

JUNIOR 

Allan, Maxwell Sedgwick, Au- 
stralia. 

Baker, Josiah William, III. 

Bales, Emmor S., la. 

Ballou, Louis L., Mich. 

Bannister, Guy, Mich. 

Barber, Henry Edward, Tex. 

Bascombe, Clifford Henry, la. 

Baumgarth, Henry, Wis. 

Behm, John William, ///. 

Bell, John Rex, Neb. 

Bergman, Arthur Gustave, III. 

Berkey, Hugh Thomas, hid. 

Bilek, Joseph Bartley, Austria. 

Bixby, Raymond Lee, la. 

Bjerke, Hans Kristian, Norway. 

Bliss, Gertrude Richards, 77/. 

Blount, Anna Bailey, 77/. 

Blumenthal, Edwin Martin, Ohio. 

Bohrer, Ernest Everet, Mo. 

Bollenbach, George William, III. 

Bond, John Lofferty, hid. 

Borchers, Fred, la. 

t Did not complete course. 

* Special student. Not candid 



Tichy, Joseph, Jr., ///. 
Todd, Paul Ives, Cal. 
Treen, Thomas Ottaway, Cal. 
Tristram, George Thomas, Ore. 
t Trumbull, Rollin Smith, ///. 
Vogan, John Wilbur, La. 
Wait, Mark Leroy, III 
Waldberg, Ben, III. 
Walsh, William Henry, ///. 
Waters, Frederick Horace, la. 
Wentworth, George Wilton, Wis. 
Werner, Edward August, Mich. 
Whitson, Oscar Leroy, la. 
Wickham, John Elwood, Ohio. 
Wilson Earl Emmans, Minn. 
Wisman, Oscar James, Ohio. 
Wolfe, Morris Russell, Kan. 
Wyatt, Eugene Ripley, Tenn. 
t Wygant, Henry Edward, Mich. 
Young, Merle Dempster, 77/. 

CLASS. 

Bostwick, Frank Brown, Ohio. 
Boyd, Dei ward James, Ont. 
Brandt, Carl Rudolph, la. 
Brant, Claude, Ind. 
Burrill, Chester Leslie, Minn. 
Bushnell, Charles William, Wis. 
Caldwell, Wm. Elliott Hughes, 

W. Va. 
Callow, Joseph Edward, Wis. 
Campbell, Peter Alexander, Ont. 
Childs, Ralph Sherman, 77/. 
Colborn, Lewis Paul, N. D. 
Constable, Roy Verner, 77/. 
Copple, Plenna Reuben, Neb. 
Corbett, James Clinton, 77/. 
Corbin, Byron J., 77/. 
Cory, Wm, M., Mich. 
Cromb, John R., Minn. 
Daniels, Charles Lyle, Pa. 
Davis, Charles Everett, Wis. 
Dorothy, Michael Joseph, 77/. 
Dryden, James Mair, Ont. 
Dupuy, Thomas Mille, La, 



xte for degree. 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



47 



Eaton. Charles David, ///. 

Eckford, J Am. Out. 

Ellis, Arthur J., Cal. 

Ellis, William Harry, Miss. 

Engel, George Louis, III. 

Fisher, Frank Edward, Ohio. 

Flachtemeier, Arthur Frederic, 

Fleming, James Clinton, Wis. 
Foster, Charles Gelutiah, la. 
Freese, Ernest Clyde, hid. 
Fuller, Clark Anthony, Wis. 
Galligan, Thomas Francis, la. 
Geiger, Emil, 77/. 
Gilchrist, Mont Rankin, N. B. 
Gill, John Hunter, ///. 
Goodman, George Oscar, S. D. 
Gregg, Edwin Stanton, Ohio. 
Griffith, Edmund Llewellyn, 111. 
Grotewohl, Jessie Louise, la. 
Guerne, Alfred Augustus, Cal. 
Hadley, Chauncey Joseph, la. 
Hammond, Roscoe Brant, Okla. 
Hancock, Herbert Harold, Wis. 
Hardie, John James, 77/. 
Hayes, Ira Paul, Neb. 
Headley, Sidney, Mich. 
Hemphill, Wilbur J., la. 
Hess, John Edward Burt, Wis. 
Hicks, William Herbert, la. 
Himes, Jennie Eva, S. D. 
Hodge, Hugh Wallace, Mo. 
Holin, Oscar Serenus, 111. 
Hullhurst, Lewis, Neb. 
Hutchinson, Floyd Milton, la. 
Johnson, Charles Emil, Minn. 
Jones, John Paul, III. 
Keller, David H., ///. 
Kennedy, George Alexander, 

Out. 
Kenyon, Ronald Bush, ///. 
Kern, Max Stienke, Wis. 
Kernan, Joseph Francis, Kan. 
Kitchen, Curtis John Burwell, 

Out. 
Kleinecke, Louis Christian, Tex. 



Kruchevsky, Samuel, ///. 
Lasker, Herman, III. 
Lawrence, James Walter, Wis. 
Ledbetter, Marion A., la. 
Lippert, Joseph, ///. 
Lynn, Austin Ames, la. 
Lynn, Emery Collins, la. 
MacMilan, William Duncan, 

Minn. 
McCallum, Frederick William, 

hid. 
McDonough, Joe Chapman, 77/. 
McLaughlin, Frank James, la. 
McMaster, Glenn, la. 
McStay, Earl Edward, la. 
Macpherson, Egbert Earl, 77/. 
Maginnis, Eugene, la. 
Mason, George Neil, 77/. 
Maurer, Nellie Ethel, Neb. 
Michalski, Frank Alfonzo, Wis. 
Miller, Lewis Marcus, Neb. 
Minnis, Harry Lee, ///. 
Mullican, Lorenza Alverado, hid. 
Munson, Robert Hoyle, la. 
Nelson, William, la. 
Niswander, Charles Harvey, la. 
O'Brien, John Denis, Minn. 
O'Connel, John Joseph, Mass. 
Opland, Joseph Segwart, S. D. 
Parkinson, David Talbott, Kan. 
Parks, Pearl, ///. 
Parks, Robert Smith, Tenn. 
Peterson, Walter Emil, Minn. 
Piner, Henry Edward, la. 
Pol in, Oscar Martin, Wis. 
Pool, Hardy Fayette, la. 
Poundstone, George Corwin, III. 
Price, Frederick Orion, la. 
Proctor, William Orson, Mo. 
Reese, Elmo David, Wis. 
Reible, George, Wis. 
Reichert, Charles Scott, la. 
Richards, William Freeman, Cal. 
Ritson, Joseph Henry, Mich. 
Sanford, Charles Wesley, Wis. 
Shill, John Edward, hid. 



48 



DENTAL SCHOOL 



Shumaker, Frank Mead, III. 
Silverberg, Henry M., III. 
Sinn, Jens Johannes, la. 
Smalley, Irwin Delos, Wis. 
Smith, Daniel Hallie, ///. 
Smith, George Hill, III. 
Smith, Julius Waldo, Minn. 
Spencer, Edward Albert, Can. 



Thomas, Lewis Edwin, 77/. 
Thompson, Edwin Cook, ///. 
Thompson, Fletcher Hillard, 77/. 
Tower, Ray Leighton, S. D. 
Tyler, Alva Dwane, Mich. 
Uglow, Stanley John, Can. 
Ulvestad, Oliver Martin, Minn. 
Waddell, William M, Utah. 



Speir, Ernest Arthur, Australia. Weir, William Arnold, Can. 



Spindlo, Thomas Henwood, £//< 
Spires, Louis Edward, Ohio. 
Stanley, William Raymond, 

Minn. 
Stevens, Wirt Allen, 77/. 
Stokes, John Francis, 77/. 
Swigert, George Orton, 77/. 
Thomas, David Ellis, Wis. 
Thomas, Edward Smith, 77/. 



Weyhe, Henry Theodore, Minn. 
Williams, Fred Hayes, hid. 
Williams, Leonard Alphonze, ///. 
Wolfe, Edwin Ferdinand, Wis. 
Zederbaum, George, III. 
Ziegler, Horace Allen, 77/. 
Zimmerman, Henry Thomas, 
Minn. 



SPECIAL. 



Home, John Walter, Scotland. 



FRESHMAN CLAfS. 



Addison, Earl Stanley, ^. D. 
Aren, Mrs. Pauline, III. 
Bacon, Lee Ashley, 77/. 
Baker, Charles Reeder, la. 
Baker, John Ellsworth, Wis. 
Bane, Raymond Waldo, 77/. 
Barber, Edward Sutherland, 

5. D. 
Beaumont, Gulie Alexander, 

Tex. 
Belknap, Henry Wales, 77/. 
Bergbom, George Nathaniel, 77Z. 
Bever, Charles B., la. 
Blackmore, Earl James, Mich. 
Blaisdell, Edward Ward, Minn. 
Blake, William E., Ore. 
Borjesson, Clarence Edward, 

Minn. 
Bradley, Howard, Alansen, 77/. 
Bronson, Almon Edson, la. 
Brunner, Albert Flenry, la. 
Carlile, Walter W., Minn. 
Christie, Herbert Franklin, Man. 
Church, Truman Tracy, 6. D. 



Churchill, Lester Frank, 77/. 
Clare, Patrick Henry, III. 
Courtice, Andrew John, Can. 
Craig, William Pollock, Pa. 
Crane, Edwin A., 77/. 
Dautrieve, Albert Joseph, La. 
Dewey, Hervert Chester, 77/. 
Dodge, Morton Stanley, Wis. 
Dodge, Wilbert Jacob, Minn. 
Doerbecker, John, 77/. 
Calvert, Alvah Wort, hid. 
Cannon, Mrs. Mae, S. D. 
Carlene, Mrs. Helfrid, ///. 
Burbank, Glen C, Cal. 
Not in attendance. 
Edgar, William, 77/. 
Ekstrom, Ernest Sune, 77/. 
Fisher, Ambrose Terry, Mich. 
Forrest, Miss Elvira, Ind. 
Fox, George, III. 
Gahlman, Edward Frank, Wis. 
Gibson, Charles Albert, la. 
Gottlieb, David Hart, Ore. 
Greeley, Harold Wilcox, 77/, 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



49 



Grindc, Seward Clarence, Wis. 
Grove, George Carlton, III. 
Harder, Louis Frank, Wis. 
Hart, Charles Simpson, ///. 
Hegge, Edward Nelson, Wis. 
Heller, Matthew, III. 
Heymar, Alfred, Poland. 
Hilbert, John Carlton, Wis. 
Hopper, Charles, 77/. 
Huber, Charles Robert, la. 
Huff, Robert E., Mich. 
Hughes, John Michael, Wis. 
Humphreys, George, Cal. 
Ilseng, Andrew. 
Ingersoll, Francis Byron, hid. 
Jackson, George Raymond, 77/. 
Janes, Charles Alonzo, Wash. 
Jenkins, Elbert Clyde, 0. 



Normoyle, Dennis James, 77/. 
Olson, Aaron Miles, 7/7. 
Packard, Gerald J., Neb. 
Packson, Ernest Shear, Kan. 
Patton, Murray Albert, Cal. 
Peacock, Mark Stanley, Man. 
Phillips, Jesse W., Minn. 
Phillips, Warren Byron, Minn. 
Pierce, Loren George, la. 
Redmond, George Hamilton, Kan. 
Roberts, Rufus James, Wis. 
Robertson, Arthur Hayes, Wis. 
Ross, Herbert, Can. 
Rothlisberge*r, Bruce G., Minn. 
Runner, Charles Frederick, III. 
Sanberg, Frank E., Minn. 
Sauer, Andrew William, la. 
Schmidt, Oscar Charles, la. 



Kerfoot, Newman Jackson, N. D. Schultz, Otto Henry, III. 



Kessler, J. Warren, hid. 
Kocher, William, III. 
Laffitte, Herman James, Wis. 
Lampe, Carl Henry, 5\ D. 
Land, John Adolph, Germany. 
Lawrence, Ivy Garfield, III. 
Linaker, George Henry, III. 
Lind, Adam, III. 
McAvoy, Robert Chris, Can. 
McGaw, Andrew Ernest, N. D. 
McNinch, Joseph Scott, Ind. 
McElroy, Joseph D., 77/. 
Mailer, Harry Orlandy, Minn. 
Maxwell, Roscoe Conklin, la. 
Miller, James Madison, Mich. 
Miller, Robert Tatham, III. 
Mitchell, William Arthur, III. 
Moore, Dwight Edwin, III. 
Mullen, George Martin, Neb. 
Mullen, Joseph Henry, Neb. 
Mullen, William Henry, Neb. 



Shiels, Guy James, Wis. 
Schmuck, Emil A., Minn. 
Shipstead, Henry S., Minn. 
Skelly, William Joseph, 77/. 
Sloan, Frank Twiss, la. 
Smith, Austin Ora, III. 
Smith, Charles Edward, 77/. 
Smith, Perry Lee, III. 
Thayer, William John, 77/. 
Theile, Alvin A., la. 
Trompen, Andrew Nicholas, Ind. 
Waddell, James Clark, ///. 
Wagoner, Ben, III. 
Walkow, Henry Emil, Wis. 
Weaver, Harold Townsend, Neb. 
Welke, John Jay, Ohio. 
Welsh, Isabella Brown, la. 
Welsh, Stanley Carpenter, Wis. 
Wenner, Alvah Leroy, 77/. 
Wick, William Walter, III. 
Woolson, Bert H., Minn. 



Murphy, Lloyd Lawrence, Minn. Yeamans, Edwin Glenway, 5. D. 
Norman, Mrs. Sarah C, Kan. 

SPECIAL COURSE. 

Perrigo, Charles H., III. 



50 DESTAL school 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION'. 

The Young Men's Christian Association of Northwest- 
ern University Dental School is an organization among 
the students 01 the school, the purpose of which is to do 
Christian work for students. You are invited to become 
acquainted with its work. In addition to meetings, Bible 
classes, and other religious work, it has made special ar- 
rangements to carry out the following: 

1. Information Bureau. — During the opening days of 
the school a number of upper class men will be at the office 
of the Dental School to meet all new students and help 
them in any way to get started on their year's work. 

2. Boarding House Lists. — Previous to the opening 
of the school a committee will have personally inspected a 
large number of suitable rooms and boarding places which 
they can recommend to students. This will greatly assist 
in getting comfortably located. 

3. Handbooks. — The Association has issued a leather- 
bound vest pocket handbook, containing useful informa- 
tion regarding the Dental School, the Y. M. C. A., and the 
city. These will be given to every student on application. 
A special edition for mailing has been gotten out and will 
be sent to any one addressing the president of the Associa- 
tion. 

4. New Students notifying us of the time* and place of 
their arrival will be met at the station by one of our num- 
ber wearing the Y. M. C. A. badge. 

5. Correspondence. — Any further information regard- 
ing the Dental School, city or Association can be secured 
by writing the president of the Association, C. L. Daniels, 
N. U. D. S., 146 Franklin St. 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 51 

THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OF NORTHWEST- 
ERN UNIVERSITY DENTAL SCHOOL. 

OFFICERS FOR 1901-1902. 

President, A. V Hargett, D.D.S., Venetian Building, Chicago. 

First Vice-President, C. E. Coy, D.D.S., Pullman, 111. 

Second Vice-President, Fred W. Parker, D.D.S., 146 Franklin St., 

Chicago. 
Treasurer W. E. Harper, D.D.S., 3441 Wabash Avenue, Chicago. 
Secretary, G. B. Macfarlane D.D.S., 70 State Street, Chicago. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Elkin W. Fishel, D.D.S., 3448 Wabash Avenue, Chicago. 

J. W. Erringer, D.D.S., 47th Street and Calumet Avenue, Chicago. 

H. E. Macdonald D.D.S., 47th and State Streets, Chicago. 

ASSISTANTS TO EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Henry A. Ware, D.D.S., 204 Cass Street, Chicago. 
E. B. Jacobs, D.D.S., Stewart Building. 

The object of this Association shall be to revive pleasant mem- 
ories and develop new pledges of brotherhood and friendship by 
meeting at intervals for social intercourse and mutual counsel. 

There will be a clinic held once a year, where the latest and best 
methods in dentistry will be presented to the members by competent 
clinicians. 

The next clinic will be held in February, at Northwestern Uni- 
versity Dental School, corner of Franklin and Madison streets, Chi- 
cago, followed by a collation in the evening. 

The annual meeting will be held at that time, and all members 
are requested to be present. 

Any graduate of Northwestern University Dental School may 
become a member upon payment of the membership fee of $1.00 and 
the annual dues of 50 cents. 

Any graduate of the University Dental College, or the American 
College of Dental Surgery, may become a member upon presentation 
of a certificate signed by the Dean and Secretary of Northwestern 
University Dental School, accompanied by the membership fee. 

All graduates of the School are urged to join this Association 
and share in the mutual benefits derived from the maintenance of 
fraternal intercourse, and that they may keep in touch with each 
other and with their Alma Mater. 

For any information address the secretary, 

Geo. B. Macfarlane 
Room 406, 70 State Street, Chicago, 111. 



THE 

SCHOOL OF PHARMACY 

O F 

NORTHWESTERN 
UNIVERSITYw^c 

(ILLINOIS COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, CHICAGO.) 

The sixteenth year of the School of Pharmacy begins 
September 23d, 1901. 

It is the largest institution of its kind west of the Atlantic 
coast states. 

Its equipment is unsurpassed. 

The laboratories include a General Chemical Laboratory, 
a General Pharmaceutical Laboratory, the Laboratory for 
Botany and Pharmacography, the Dispensing Laboratory, 
the Laboratory for Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry and 
the Bacteriological Laboratory. 

The museums contain several thousand specimens. 

A well selected library of over one thousand bound 
volumes is open to the classes. 

The faculty is composed of well known experienced 
teachers. 

The Alumni now number over 1,200, distributed over 
fifty-two states, territories and foreign countries. 

For further information, apply to the Dean of the School, 
Prof. Oscar Oldberg, 2421 Dearborn Street, Chicago. 




northwestern university 
Medical School 



(Chicago Medical College) 



2421-2437 Dearborn St., Chicago, III, 



T^HIS SCHOOL was the pioneer in the enforcement of 
a standard of preliminary education, the adoption of 
longer annual courses, the grading of the curriculum. 

The buildings are commodious, the equipment complete, 
the clinical material ample. The instruction is individual in 
laboratories and clinics. 

The following hospitals are affiliated: Mercy Hospital, 

500 beds; Wesley Hospital, 200 beds; St. Luke's Hospital, 

250 beds; Provident Hospital, 100 beds. Our dispensary 
treats over 26,000 patients annually. 

For further information address the secretary, 

Dr. N. S. DAVIS, Jr., Dean, 

2431 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 



3 0112 105753484